Learn when and where beer made history, both archaeological and written.
Granaries for holding bulk grain were discovered in archaeological sites from the "Pre-Pottery Neolithic A" period.
Two ancient beer breweries were discovered in the Mijiaya archaeological site in the Shaanxi province in northern China, which date from the late Yangshao period. The breweries contained clay stoves, storage pots, funnels, and amphorae. Some artifacts had traces of cereal grains including western barley, pearl barley, and common millet. This is the earliest archaeological evidence of beer brewing in China.
The oldest known drinking straw was found in a Sumerian Royal Tomb of Ur, in the grave of Pu-abi, Queen of Ur. It is a golden tube, over a meter in length, with 17 lapiz lazuli segments and a silver sipping mouthpiece.
Tell Mardikh, Syria
Three copies of clay tablets, containing a hymn dedicated to Ninkasi, the goddess of brewing, were discovered , which date from the Old Babylonian period. The cuneiform inscriptions contain the oldest written evidence of the actual process for brewing beer.
Oracle Bone pieces, containing records of beer brewing, were discovered at the Yin Xu archaeological site in the Henan Province in central China, which date from the Shang Dynasty period. Inscriptions show that malted millet and barley were main brewing ingredients. Oracle Bones were used in royal pyromancy rituals to predict the future. This is the earliest written evidence of beer brewing in China.
This was a Beer Purity Law from Bavaria, now a state in Germany, which restricted the ingredients used in brewing beer. It was proposed in 1487 AD and passed in 1516 AD.
The invention of the thermometer was achieved through a number of developments, beginning with those of Galileo Galilei, and essentially ending with those of Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit. The invention of the thermometer allowed an improvement in the mashing step of the brew house process.
Louis Pasteur was a French chemist who is highly regarded for developments in fermentation and pasteurization, helping the production of beer, milk, and wine.
Germany isolates lager yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus. By 1870 most of the breweries in Bohemia were lager breweries.
Joseph William Lovibond invented the first colorimeter, which was used to measure beer coloration to determine its quality. He founded a company in 1885 to manufacture his invention, named the Lovibond Comparator.
Federal Prohibition of Alcohol was part of the United States Constitution from 1919 to 1933. It was the 18th Ammendment to the Constitution. It was ratified (passed) on January 16, 1919, and prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, or exportation of intoxicating liquors, active one year from the ratification.
Homebrewing beer was prohibited by a federal law since 1919. This law was repealed by a Bill in November of 1978, signed by president Jimmy Carter, active 3 months later. States were then allowed to legalize homebrewing with their own laws, or modify the federal one. Almost all States have now legalize homebrewing.
This law was pivotal in the resurgence of breweries in the US. Prior to this law, the number of breweries had been in decline
Federal Law now states that individuals may brew up to 100 gallons annually, and households with 2+ adults may brew up to 200 gallons annually. Some States may have superceding laws that vary.
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